Apart maybe from the first abstract below, I haven't been able to find anything jaw dropping yet. If anyone wants to help out, the abstract search engine is here.
Spatial variation of the Y-chromosome: The global patterns and correlations with other genetic systems, linguistic and geography
Balanovsky et al.
We developed the “Y-base” database, which includes frequencies of 500 Y-chromosomal haplogroups in 4200 populations worldwide, with total sample size 142,000. 130,000 Y-chromosomes came from 300 published papers and remaining 12,000 are our unpublished data.
Using this dataset we created the world spatial distribution maps of 230 haplogroups. This World Atlas of Y-chromosomal variation was created by GeneGeo software, which we developed for digital map analysis in gene geography. The zones of sharp changes in frequencies were interpreted as genetic boundaries; the main boundary crosses Eurasia and includes not only mountain (Himalayas and Caucasus) but also steppe segments.
The question arises to which degree patterns of Y-chromosomal variation agree with data on other genetic systems. To answer, we characterized all extant ethnic groups speaking Balto-Slavic languages by mitochondrial DNA (N=6,876), Y-chromosome (N=6,079) and genome-wide SNPs (N=296). We found that genetic distances, based on autosomal and Y-chromosomal loci, show a high correlation (0.9) both with each other and with geography but slightly lower correlation (0.7) with the mitochondrial DNA and linguistic affiliation.
The high-throughput sequencing of the Y-chromosome reveals thousands phylogenetically informative SNPs. Population screening for these markers subdivides old haplogroups with subcontinental zones of spread into multiple young haplogroups with restricted areas - thus providing excellent tools for reconstructing population history. This approach allowed us successfully subdivide C2-M217, N1c-M178, and G1-M285 into 35 new subhaplogroups, to create their frequency distribution maps and estimate the SNP and STR mutation rate on the Y-chromosome.
Detection of mitochondrial haplogroups variability of small population living in 9th century based on analysis of ancient DNA
Šebest et al.
Introduction: Ancient DNA (aDNA) represents all types of DNA that can be recovered from archaeological and palaeontological material or museum specimens. Information from aDNA is very useful in phylogenetics, paleoanthropology or genealogy. The isolation and analysis of aDNA is accompanied by two major problems: low quality and quantity of aDNA and the risk of contamination with modern DNA. Therefore, several strict laboratory and methodological criteria must be followed. The aim of this study is to isolate and analyze aDNA from human remains of the small Avar-Slavic population living in 9th century and to determine mitochondrial haplogroups in order to estimate the ratio of haplogroups typical for these two ethnicities.
Material and methods: The 50 samples of human teeth and bones were used for the isolation of aDNA in this experiment. The samples were excavated from Avar-Slavic burial site located near Cífer-Pác (Slovakia). Isolation of aDNA were performed in recommended conditions. Mitochondrial haplogroups were determined by sequencing of the HVRI of mtDNA followed by analysis of polymorphisms in this region.
Results: Despite the fact that the graves of mentioned burial place contained Avar artefacts and some remains showed mongoloid cranial features, majority of detected mitochondrial haplogroups belong to the common lineages of the Slavic populations and only presence of haplogroup U7 (typical for region of Near East) indicate the Avar origin. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the assimilation between Avars and other neighbour ethnicities was too extensive in 9th century and, therefore the presence of haplogroups characteristic for Avars is very rare.
Analysis of the Y-chromosome in the Volga-Ural region populations from Russia
Trofimova et al.
We analyzed a sample of the Volga-Ural region, including 462 individuals from 8 populations: Udmurts, Komi, Mordvinians, Mari, Besermyans, Chuvashes, Tatars, Bashkirs. We have shown that the major proportion of Y-chromosome haplogroups in the studied populations accounted for the four branches (R1b-M269, R1a-M198, N1c1-Tat and N1c2-P43), which together make up from 51% to 100% of the patrilineal genetic diversity in the studied region.
We have shown that West Asian and Central Asian Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a-Z2125 in the Volga-Ural region occurs with the greatest frequency in Bashkirs (31%), which is the dominant subgroup of haplogroup R1a-M198 in this population despite the fact that in other populations Eastern European R1a-M558 and R1a-M458 are the dominant lines. This fact indicates that different haplogroup R1a-M198 lines in the populations of the Volga-Ural region have different sources.
The Eastern European influence in the population can be also seen in Tatars from Tuimasinsky district of Bashlortostan in which typical for Central Europe haplogroup R1b-M405 is the predominant line of the haplogroup R1b-M343. According to the PCA analysis based on the Y-chromosome haplogroups distribution, Bashkirs show the greatest separation from other populations of the region. The reason is the presence with the high frequency of Asian lineages in their gene pool.
Phylogeographic refinement of human Y chromosome haplogroup E provides new insights into the early dispersal of herders in sub-Saharan Africa
Trombetta et al.
Recently, a high number of Y chromosome SNPs has been discovered through next generation sequencing studies, but the geographic distribution for most of these variants remains largely unexplored.
Haplogroup E is the most common human Y chromosome clade within Africa and its internal branches have been linked to a wide range of human movements. To increase the level of resolution of haplogroup E, we disclosed the phylogenetic relationships among 729 mutations found in 33 haplogroup DE Y-chromosomes sequenced at high coverage in previous studies and further dissected the E-M35 subclade by genotyping 62 informative markers in about 5000 samples from 118 worldwide populations.
The phylogeny of haplogroup E showed novel features compared to the previous topology, including a new basal clade. Within haplogroup E-M35, we resolved basal polytomies and assigned all the E-M35* chromosomes to different new monophyletic clades. Through a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis, we associated each node of the tree to specific geographic areas. By this analysis, we identified a new E-M35 sub-Saharan clade, which originated about 11 kya in the northern part of the Horn of Africa. SNP-based dating, phylogenetic structuring and geographic distribution of this clade (and its sub-clades) are consistent with a multi-step dispersal of herders within eastern Africa and its subsequent diffusion to sub-equatorial areas.
Our results provide new insights into the evolutionary hypotheses about the spread of pastoralism in Africa and increase the discriminative power of the E-M35 haplogroup for use in forensic genetics through the identification of new ancestry informative markers.