Yamnaya_Kalmykia Khvalynsk 57.7 Kotias 28.3 Hungary_EN 12.9 Ulchi 1.1 AfontovaGora3 0 Anatolia_Neolithic 0 Karelia_HG 0 Loschbour 0 MA1 0 Motala_HG 0 distance%=1.9125 / distance=0.019125 Yamnaya_Samara Khvalynsk 56.75 Kotias 26.4 Hungary_EN 10.85 Karelia_HG 4.4 Loschbour 1.6 AfontovaGora3 0 Anatolia_Neolithic 0 MA1 0 Motala_HG 0 Ulchi 0 distance%=2.1354 / distance=0.021354Very interesting but hardly surprising. Essentially what we're seeing there is potentially very strong genetic continuity from the Eneolithic to the Early Bronze Age on the Pontic-Caspian Steppe. In other words, from Khvalynsk to Yamnaya. However, at some point between the Eneolithic and the Early Bronze Age, the steppes saw a major influx of extra CHG, represented by the ~27% of Kotias-related admixture. Considering the relevant uniparental data, with lots of Y-HG R1b and no Y-HG J among Yamnaya males, I'd say this CHG came with women. Also, the relatively high admixture related to early Hungarian Plain farmers (Hungary EN) is a fairly curious detail that has not been reported before. If real, it probably represents gene flow from the Neolithic and/or Chalcolithic Balkans to the Pontic-Caspian Steppe. Again, in all likelihood it mostly came with women, perhaps from Tripolye-Cucuteni and/or Varna communities. But, to make sure the results weren't erroneous - perhaps skewed by the worryingly high affinity between the two CHG genomes, Kotias and Satsurblia, both pseudo-diploid sequences - I reran the tests using a different version of the same datasheet (available here). In this version, Kotias and Satsurblia are part of a single Caucasus HG sample included in the rows.
Yamnaya_Kalmykia Khvalynsk 53.95 Caucasus_HG 38.45 Hungary_EN 4.7 Motala_HG 2.9 AfontovaGora3 0 Anatolia_Neolithic 0 Karelia_HG 0 Loschbour 0 MA1 0 Ulchi 0 distance%=1.7492 / distance=0.017492 Yamnaya_Samara Khvalynsk 56.7 Caucasus_HG 33.55 Hungary_EN 4.25 Loschbour 2.95 Motala_HG 2.55 AfontovaGora3 0 Anatolia_Neolithic 0 Karelia_HG 0 MA1 0 Ulchi 0 distance%=2.0964 / distance=0.020964Yup, the Hungary EN contributions take a dive. But they're still above noise level (>2%), so they might well represent a real signal that entered the Yamnaya horizon or late Khvalynsk from the west. Can't wait to see how Yamnaya genomes from north of the Black Sea come out. See also... Modeling Steppe_EMBA Yamnaya =/= Eastern Hunter-Gatherers + Iran Chalcolithic The Khvalynsk men